The 100 Most Influential Women of All Time: A Ranking Past and Present
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With the aid of women's studies professors from leading U.S. colleges and universities, Felder has ranked 100 social reformers, women's rights activists, scientists, educators, labor leaders, politicians, rulers, religious leaders, artists, performers, and sports figures who have inspired and changed the world. Profiles include Marie Curie, Susan B. Anthony, Harriet Tubman, Lucille Ball, Simone de Beauvoir, and Rosa Parks. Photos throughout.
Épistre au Dieu d’amours, L’/“Letter to the God of Loves” (Christine de Pisan), 54 Errand into the Maze, 265 Essays in Medical Sociology (Blackwell), 186 F Family Limitation (Sanger), 229 Feminine Psychology (Horney), 262 Ferdinand II, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77 Fin de Chéri, La/The Last of Chéri (Colette), 222 Flush (Woolf), 249 Four Saints in Three Acts (Stein), 224 Frank, Anne, 14–15, 310–312 Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (Shelley), 130 Franklin, Rosalind, 13, 303–304
coherence of her career. POLITICAL CRISES Catherine’s first great political crisis came in July 1559 upon the accidental death of Henry II, a traumatic bereavement from which it is doubtful that she ever recovered. Under her son, Francis II, power was retained by the Guise brothers. Thus began her lifelong struggle—explicit in her correspondence—with these extremists who, supported by Spain and the papacy, sought to dominate the crown and extinguish its independence in the commingled interests
Vatican library. She was renowned, too, for her militant protection of personal freedoms, for her charities, and as protectress of the Jews in Rome. Christina died in 1689. Her tomb is in St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. MARIA THERESA (b. May 13, 1717, Vienna, Austria—d. Nov. 29, 1780, Vienna) Akey figure in the power politics of 18th-century Europe, Maria Theresa, archduchess of Austria and queen of Hungary and Bohemia (1740–80), was the wife and empress of the Holy Roman emperor Francis I
in the Nile. Cleopatra, now married to her brother Ptolemy XIV, was restored to her throne. In June 47 BCE she gave birth to Ptolemy Caesar (known to the people of Alexandria as Caesarion, or ‘little Caesar’). Whether Caesar was the father of Caesarion, as his name implies, cannot now be known. It took Caesar two years to extinguish the last flames of Pompeian opposition. As soon as he returned to Rome, in 46 BCE, he celebrated a four-day triumph—the ceremonial in honour of a general after his
of, in Samuel Johnson’s words, “common” (unspecialized) readers. Woolf’s collection of essays The Common Reader (1925) was followed by The Common Reader: Second Series (1932; also published as The Second Common Reader). She continued writing essays on reading and writing, women and history, and class and politics for the rest of her life. Many were collected after her death in volumes edited by Leonard Woolf. Virginia Woolf wrote far more fiction than Joyce and far more nonfiction than either