State Feminism and Political Representation
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How can women maximize their political influence? Does state feminism enhance the political representation of women? Should feminism be established in state institutions to treat women's concerns? Developed by field experts, this book uses an innovative model of political influence to construct answers to these and other questions in the long-running debate over the political representation of women. The book assesses how states respond to women's demands for political representation in terms of their inclusion as actors, as well as the consideration of their interests in the decision making process.
advocate the women’s movement’s equality goals. In defence of the women’s policy agency we should emphasise that the attitude of the integrated women’s movement itself was ambiguous, because it had not used the numerous opportunities available to criticise the bill from a women’s movement perspective. The lack of criticism reflected the party loyalties of the integrated movement, a sensibility that had previously prevented the state secretary from claiming a quota for the composition of advisory
gender equality, for example, solutions to the low pay problem’ (Kansan Uutiset 8 February 1987). For Ojala, quotas were thus a means to other ends rather than an end in themselves. In these statements, the persistence of the gender pay gap was regarded as one of the most important gender A politics for presence: Finland 71 inequality issues and it was hoped that an increase in women’s political representation would result in positive changes in tackling the problem. Characteristically, the
Le Monde 1993, ‘Manifeste des 577 pour une de´mocratie paritaire’, A du Re´seau Femmes pour la Parite´, Le Monde, 10 November Montebourg, Arnaud 2000, La machine a` trahir. Rapport sur le de´labrement de nos institutions, Paris: Denoe¨l Mossuz-Lavau, Janine 1998, Femmes/hommes pour la parite´, La bibliothe`que du citoyen Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques Papon, Christiane 1985, ‘Mais ou` sont-elles donc?’, Le Monde, 25–26 August. Roudy, Yvette 1982a, La femme en
Interior. Our research revealed no comments about or engagement in this debate by the women’s ministry. We found no evidence of efforts to gender this debate, nor any advocacy of women’s movement goals. Thus, the women’s policy agency’s role was symbolic in this policy debate. Women’s movement characteristics As noted above, the German women’s movement in the 1990s was divided and in decline. It was close to the traditional political left during this debate. Mainstream feminists active in the SPD
party list (Van de Velde 1994, pp. 299–311). In 1985, the Vereniging voor Vrouwenbelangen, Vrouwenarbeid en Gelijk Staatsburgerschap (Vrouwenbelangen, Association for Women’s Interests, Women’s Work and Equal Citizenship) received a subsidy to support their organisation. Vrouwenbelangen was a direct descendant of the Vereniging voor Vrouwenkiesrecht (Association for Women’s Suffrage), founded in 1894. It had a small membership of professional and politically active women from different parties.