Malinowski, Rivers, Benedict and Others: Essays on Culture and Personality (History of Anthropology)

Malinowski, Rivers, Benedict and Others: Essays on Culture and Personality (History of Anthropology)

Language: English

Pages: 266

ISBN: 0299107345

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

History of Anthropology is a series of annual volumes, inaugurated in 1983, each of which treats a theme of major importance in both the history and current practice of anthropological inquiry. Drawing its title from a poem of W. H. Auden's, the present volume, Malinowski, Rivers, Benedict, and Others (the fourth in the series) focuses on the emergence of anthropological interest in "culture and personality" during the 1920s and 1930s. It also explores the historical, cultural, literary, and biological background of major figures associated with the movement, including Bronislaw Manlinowski, Edward Sapir, Abram Kardiner, Ruth Benedict, Margaret Mead, and Gregory Bateson. Born in the aftermath of World War I, flowering in the years before and after World War II, severely attacked in the 1950s and 1960s, "culture and personality" was subsequently reborn as "psychological anthropology." Whether this foreshadows the emergence of a major anthropological subdiscipline (equivalent to cultural, social, biological, or linguistic anthropology) from the current welter of "adjectival" anthropologies remain to be seen. In the meantime, the essays collected in the volume may encourage a rethinking of the historical roots of many issues of current concern. Included in this volume are the contributions of Jeremy MacClancy, William C. Manson, William Jackson, Richard Handler, Regna Darnell, Virginia Yans-McLaughlin, James A. Boon, and the editor.

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Malinowski continued to maintain personal contact with figures in the world of psychoanalysis into the 1930s. Flugel remained one of his intimates; and during a stay with his family in the south of France in 1932, he established a close friendship with Princess Marie Bonaparte, with whom he corresponded over the next few years, often about matters relating to psychoanalysis and anthropology (Bertin 1932:186). Through Princess Marie, he became briefly involved in helping Geza Roheim settle in the

pistol in his mouth and pulled the trigger. Coming to consciousness with a bullet lodged in his forehead, Layard staggered to Auden's flat and asked him to finish the job; Auden refused, and took him to a hospital, where the bullet was extracted. With his brain miraculously undamaged, and his immediate obsessions dispelled by the suicide attempt, Layard soon recovered and returned to Britain (Gardiner 1976). Back in London, he began working on his Malekulan material-"pouring over my

regarding such symbolism in the Vao version of the ceremony was lacking, he promised that it would "be given in my more detailed account of initiation of Atchin" (1942:521). However, in his unpublished notes concerning initiation into manhood on Atchin, which, admittedly, do not appear to be final drafts, the only evidence I could find of ritual death and rebirth was the novices' seclusion in the initiation lodge for thirty days. Layard thought it "significant" that this was the common period of

every line of her work is sincere" (PMP: 3123125). Religious imagery is central in Benedict's poetry, but she used it without religious conviction. As she explained in an autobiographical fragment written for Mead, her religion was a culture, not a faith: "I was brought up in VIGOROUS MALE AND ASPIRING FEMALE Ruth Benedict, ca. 1925. (Courtesy Vassar College Library.) 139 140 RICHARD HANDLER the midst of the church .... Nevertheless my religious life had nothing to do with institutional

candidates discussed for the fellowships were Cora Du Bois, Ruth Bunzel, Pearl Beaglehole, Ruth Landes, and Walter Dyk, with Benedict speaking on behalf of Morris Opler, and Sullivan and Sapir strongly pushing Stanley Newman -who after receiving his doctorate under Sapir at Yale had had difficulty finding research money to encourage his interest in "problems of language psychology" (NRC: Subcomm. Training Fels., 12121135, p. 7). Although Newman was "a thoroughly normal person," which might make

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