Dictionary of Anthropology
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
A comprehensive resource of anthropology.
primitive qualities. Eibib, Heitsi. A Hottentot culture hero (q.v.). eidolism. The belief in disembodied souls or ghosts, i.e., an eidolon. eidolon. See EIDOLISM. eidos. The explicit content of a culture, or its outward appearance, as opposed to its essential or non-manifest significance. eight-class system. See SYSTEM, EIGHT-CLASS. einkorn. An ancient form of wheat, still grown in parts of central Europe. eisteddfod. An assembly of Welsh bards to examine candidates and hold contests.
first. The initial catch of fish or animals, or the initial offspring of domesticated animals; also, the ceremonies surrounding their consumption. The object of first-fruit ceremonies is to placate the gods and reassure them that they will get their share, thus minimizing the danger that lurks in everything new. The ceremonies may involve sacrificial offerings, or elaborate feasting. The earliest agriculture products that became ripe were often presented to a god in order to celebrate. These
neanderthalensis, found in 1921 in Northern Rhodesia. The specimen was an almost complete skull and some leg bones. It had a large face and teeth with caries. The specimen is also called Rhodesian Man and Broken Hill Man. It was not buried and was found in a cave shaft. The skull was thick, long and low. Rhodesian man had a brain capacity of 1,300-1,500 cc. The brows and palate are very large. The mouth is human, but the cranium is low and the brow ridges are more massive than any other human
Mesopotamia. It was the principal writing material of the early Christian era, and instances of its use occur as late as the eighth century A.D. With a history, thus, of some 4,000 years, it has been used longer as a writing material made of plant fibers than any other substance. The earliest papyri found in Europe were presented to the library of Basel in the late 16th century. Later, there were systematic efforts to locate papyri in the Fayum. paracone. The mesio-buccal cusp of the upper
Features which are desirable for human purposes are developed by progressive breeding under artificial conditions. Some of the characteristics which often result from domestication include excess fat on the rump, short jaw, drooping ears, and depigmentation or melanism. Domesticating animals is an artificial process which is probably linked with the growth of agriculture. Taking care of animals properly is time consuming, and early food gathering (q.v.) communities could not spare persons for