Dark Matter: An Introduction

Dark Matter: An Introduction

Debasish Majumdar

Language: English

Pages: 269

ISBN: 1466572116

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

Dark Matter: An Introduction tackles the rather recent but fast-growing subject of astroparticle physics, encompassing three main areas of fundamental physics: cosmology, particle physics, and astrophysics. Accordingly, the book discusses symmetries, conservation laws, relativity, and cosmological parameters and measurements, as well as the astrophysical behaviors of galaxies and galaxy clusters that indicate the presence of dark matter and the possible nature of dark matter distribution. This succinct yet comprehensive volume:

  • Addresses all aspects essential to the study of dark matter
  • Explores particle candidates for cold dark matter beyond the theory of the standard model, providing examples of basic extensions and introducing theories such as supersymmetry and extra dimensions
  • Explains―in simple text and mathematical formulations―calculation of the freeze-out temperature of a dark matter species and its relic density
  • Provides theoretical background for dark matter scattering off a target, event rate calculation, and dark matter annihilation essential to study direct and indirect detection of dark matter

Complete with a detailed review of the latest dark matter experiments and techniques, Dark Matter: An Introduction is an ideal text for beginning researchers in the field as well as for general readers with an inquisitive mind, as the important topic of astroparticle physics is treated both pedagogically and with deeper insight.

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is by and large gravitational. The discrepancy between the luminous mass and the gravitational mass gives an indication of the presence of a huge unseen mass in the Universe. In order to measure the gravitational mass of a galaxy, or galaxy cluster for that matter, one studies the motion of the galaxy and uses gravitational calculations to estimate the gravitational mass required to keep the system bound, in the same manner that the gravitation between sun and the Earth balances the motion of the

electromagnetic emissions by neutral hydrogen atoms § Quasars are very luminous objects at high redshift. They are distant active galactic nuclei at the center of a massive galaxy, are extremely energetic, and emit energy that includes the visible band and radio waves. Evidence of Dark Matter 103 in their ground states give rise to the observed absorption spectrum of the Lyman alpha forest. Due to the expansion of the Universe, the wavelength that is absorbed by a neutral hydrogen atom would

if they exist, should be in a “compactified” form since we generally do not experience any manifestation of an extra dimension in our 4D world. Theories of extra dimension are proposed to probe new physics beyond the Standard Model and to address the hierarchy problem mentioned earlier. Theories of extra dimensions are used to understand unification of gravity and gauge interactions, cosmological constant problem, etc. Let us consider just one extra spatial dimension (4+1 dimensions), y, say. The

the temperature ratio in Eq. 8.51 in the present epoch. But at the present epoch γ, spin = 1 and hence number of spin states should have been 2s + 1 = 3. Yet gγ = 2 because the logitudinal mode of electromagnetic wave does not propagate. For spin 21 fermions the spin degrees of freedom is however 2s + 1 = 2. § For 144 Dark Matter: An Introduction (a = a0 ), Tγ = 2.725K, which leads to Tν (a0 ) = 1.95K. This is the temperature of the cosmic relic neutrino background. Integrating Eq. 8.43 we

the directionality of the recoil and the consequent directionality of the WIMP. This is important in order to detect the directional variation of the detection rate because of the diurnal motion of the Earth. Detection of directional variation of 187 Dark Matter Hunt Gaseous Xe S2 Liqud Xenon Electron flow S1 Dark Matter WIMP FIGURE 11.1 Schematic diagram representing a Xenon two-phase time projection chamber. the signal would provide a clear signature for the nonterrestrial nature of

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