Bones, Bodies, Behavior: Essays in Behavioral Anthropology (History of Anthropology, Volume 5)
George W. Stocking Jr.
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History of Anthropology is a series of annual volumes, inaugurated in 1983, each broadly unified around a theme of major importance to both the history and the present practice of anthropological inquiry. Bones, Bodies, Behavior, the fifth in the series, treats a number of issues relating to the history of biological or physical anthropology: the application of the "race" idea to humankind, the comparison of animals minds to those of humans, the evolution of humans from primate forms, and the relation of science to racial ideology. Following an introductory overview of biological anthropology in Western tradition, the seven essays focus on a series of particular historical episodes from 1830 to 1980: the emergence of the race idea in restoration France, the comparative psychological thought of the American ethnologist Lewis Henry Morgan, the archeological background of the forgery of the remains "discovered" at Piltdown in 1912, their impact on paleoanthropology in the interwar period, the background and development of physical anthropology in Nazi Germany, and the attempts of Franx Boas and others to organize a consensus against racialism among British and American scientists in the late 1930s. The volume concludes with a provocative essay on physical anthropology and primate studies in the United States in the years since such a consensus was established by the UNESCO "Statements on Race" of 1950 and 1951. Bringing together the contributions of a physical anthropologist (Frank Spencer), a historical sociologist (Michael Hammond), and a number of historians of science (Elazar Barkan, Claude Blanckaert, Donna Haraway, Robert Proctor, and Marc Swetlitz), this volume will appeal to a wide range of students, scholars, and general readers interested in the place of biological assumptions in the modern anthropological tradition, in the biological bases of human behavior, in racial ideologies, and in the development of the modern human sciences.
Among the naturalists, the founders included Henri Milne-Edwards (William's brother) and Pierre Flourens, holder of the chair in the natural history of man at the Museum de Paris. There were also a number of geographers, including Pascal d~vezac, Sabin Berthelot, and Alcide d'Orbigny, who in 1839 published the Homme Americain, considere sous ses rapports physiques et moraux. And perhaps most interestingly, from a social historical point of view, there were a group of second-generation followers
set the stage for the Piltdown forgery (Hammond 1979), and in turn Piltdown provided evidence that Boule was in fact correct in arguing that the morphological specializations of the Neandertals represented a failed evolutionary line. This combination established a paradigm that would rule paleoanthropology for many years. Discovery after discovery was judged to be doubly fossil-that is, to be recognized as a true fossil in terms of historical origin in the distant past, and then to be set off to
MINDS OF BEAVERS AND THE MINDS OF HUMANS: NATURAL SUGGESTION, NATURAL SELECTION, AND EXPERIMENT IN THE WORK OF LEWIS HENRY MORGAN Marc Swetlitz 56 PROLOGUE TO A SCIENTIFIC foRGERY: THE BRITISH EOLITHIC MOVEMENT FROM ABBEVILLE TO PILTDOWN Frank Spencer 84 THE SHADOW MAN PARADIGM IN PALEOANTHROPOLOGY, 1911-1945 Michael Hammond 117 FROM ANTHROPOLOGIE TO RASSENKUNDE IN THE GERMAN ANTHROPOLOGICAL TRADITION Robert Proctor 138 MOBILIZING SCIENTISTS AGAINST NAZI RACISM, 1933-1939 Elazar Barkan
work concentrated on those parts of the body considered to be of political import (skulls and pelvises), yet the division between anthropology and ethnology left analysis of cultural qualities to a separate, nonphysical branch of the science. As director of Munich's prestigious Anthropologisches Institut-the oldest anthropological institute in Germany-Martin was Germany's foremost anthropologist in the early postwar period. Yet, already by the end of the war, Martin's anthropology had begun to
the purpose of such courts, established throughout the Reich, was to determine who should be sterilized according to the provisions of the July 1933 "law for the prevention of genetically diseased offspring" (Gesetz zur Verhutung Erbkranken Nachwuchses). Fischer and Abel also provided the Reichsstelle fur Sippenforschung (Agency for Genealogical Research) with expert advice on racial purity (Rassereinheit); Fischer and a number of his students (e.g., Buhler) were regularly called upon to testify