Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View

Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View

Immanuel Kant

Language: English

Pages: 320

ISBN: 0809320606

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

In the fall semester of 1772/73 at the Albertus University of Königsberg, Immanuel Kant, metaphysician and professor of logic and metaphysics, began lectures on anthropology, which he continued until 1776, shortly before his retirement from public life. His lecture notes and papers were first published in 1798, eight years after the publication of the Critique of Judgment, the third of his famous Critiques. The present edition of the Anthropology is a translation of the text found in volume 7 of Kants gesammelte Schriften, edited by Oswald Külpe.

Kant describes the Anthropology as a systematic doctrine of the knowledge of humankind. (He does not yet distinguish between the academic discipline of anthropology as we understand it today and the philosophical.) Kant’s lectures stressed the "pragmatic" approach to the subject because he intended to establish pragmatic anthropology as a regular academic discipline. He differentiates the physiological knowledge of the human race—the investigation of "what Nature makes of man"—from the pragmatic—"what man as a free being makes of himself, what he can make of himself, and what he ought to make of himself." Kant believed that anthropology teaches the knowledge of humankind and makes us familiar with what is pragmatic, not speculative, in relation to humanity. He shows us as world citizens within the context of the cosmos.

Summarizing the cloth edition of the Anthropology, Library Journal concludes: "Kant’s allusions to such issues as sensation, imagination, judgment, (aesthetic) taste, emotion, passion, moral character, and the character of the human species in regard to the ideal of a cosmopolitan society make this work an important resource for English readers who seek to grasp the connections among Kant’s metaphysics of nature, metaphysics of morals, and political theory. The notes of the editor and translator, which incorporate material from Ernst Cassirer’s edition and from Kant’s marginalia in the original manuscript, shed considerable light on the text."

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the lawfulness of the understanding. It is therefore the faculty of the aesthetic power of judgment to choose that which is universally valid.] 1 37 [z4 t ] Anthropological Didactic other human beings presupposes freedom - and this feeling is pleasure. But the universal validity of this feeling for everyone, which distinguishes tasteful choice (of the beautiful) from choice through mere sensation (of what is merely subjectively pleasing), carries with it the concept of a law; for only in

representation of outer freedom heightens the inclination to persist in it or to extend it into a violent passion, by analogy with the concept of right. With mere animals, even the most violent inclination (for example, the inclination to sexual union) is not called passion: because they have no reason, which alone establishes the concept of freedom and with which passion comes into collision. Accordingly, the outbreak of passion can be attributed to the human being. - It is said of human beings

according to the principle of the use or abuse that human beings make of their person and of their freedom under each other, when one human being makes another a mere means to his ends. - Passions actually are directed only to human beings and can also only be satisfied by them. 37 38 39 A Siberian ethnic group. See also Lectures on Physical Geography 9: 401-402. Enthusiasm. Crossed out in H: passion B The inclination toward possession of the capacity in general without using it is also

likes to take part in public affairs and wants to be loudly praised. Accordingly he loves the show7 and pomp offormalities; he gladly takes others under his wing and according to appearances is magnanimous, not from love, however, but from pride, for he loves himself more. - He has a high opinion of order and therefore appears to be cleverer than he is. He is avaricious in order not to be stingy; polite, but with ceremony; stiff and affected in social intercourse; likes any flatterer who is the

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