A Basic Course in Anthropological Linguistics (Studies in Linguistic and Cultural Anthropology)
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Language can be studied from several angles. The focus on the relation between language, thought and culture is known as anthropological linguistics (AL). This text constitutes a basic introduction to the subject matter and techniques of AL. Traditionally, anthropological linguists have aimed to document and study the languages of indigenous cultures, especially North American ones. Today, however, the purview of this exciting science has been extended considerably to encompass the study of language as a general cultural phenomenon, and to determine genealogical relations among languages, so as to recreate ancient cultures through them. In non-technical language, with plenty of examples related to languages across the world, this book introduces the basic notions, concepts, and techniques of AL. It also discusses the origin and evolution of language, focusing on the comparison and reconstruction of language families. Its treatment of techniques for analyzing sounds, words, sentences and meanings introduces the student to what must be understood about language and its structure in order to apply that knowledge to the study of thought and culture. The final two chapters examine how languages vary according to social factors and how languages influence cognition. To enhance the text's pedagogical utility, a set of practical activities and topics for study accompany each of its eight chapters. A glossary of technical terms is also included. The overall objective of A Basic Course in Anthropological Linguistics is to show how the technical methodology of linguistic analysis can help students gain a deeper understanding of language as a strategy for classifying the world. The text'sunderlying premise is that the distinction between language and knowledge is hardly ever clear-cut. Indeed, the two enter into a constant synergy--a synergy that defines the human condition.
French; /kt/> /C/in Spanish. In Italian, it can be seen that the first consonant /k/ assimilated completely in pronunciation to the second one, /t/. Assimilation is the process whereby one sound takes on the characteristic sound properties of another, either partially or totally. In Old French, the assimilation process was only partial, since the zone of articulation of the semivowel sound (a sound that is partially a vowel and partially a consonant, as the “y” in “payment”) /Y in the mouth is
XY + Z, whch leads to a different interpretation of its meaning: Old men and (not old) women. Now, communicative competence provides us with the know-how for resolving the ambiguity in real situations. SENTENCES 91 For example,uttering old men followed by a brief pause will render the meaning of XY + Z; on the other hand a brief pause after old will render the meaning of X(Y + 2). As this example shows, the task of the linguist involves not only determining grammatical relationships, but also
personality). These not only permit us to recognize patterns, but also to anticipate new patterns and to make inferences and deductions about them. Lakoff and Johnson identify three basic types of image schemas. The first one involves orientation-thinking in its basic outline form--e.g., up vs. down, back vs. front, near vs. far, etc. This underlies conceptual metaphors such as [happiness is up] (“Today my spirits are up”; “My joy reaches the sky”). The second type involves ontological thinking.
cross-culturally. THE WHORFIAN HYPOTHESIS The seeds of the WH were planted by Boas and his students at Columbia University in the 1920s, among whom Edward Sapir in particular devoted his career to determining the extent to which the language of a culture shaped the thought patterns of its users. Sapir was fascinated by the fact that every culture developed its own particular lexical and grammatical categories that largely determined the ways in which individuals in the culture came to view the
ANTHROPOLOGICALLINGUISTICS OBJECTm FIELD SITUATION SPEAKER (SENDER) HEARER (RECEIVER) 1a HANDLINGOF TOPIC, RUNNING OF THIRD PERSON ENGLISH... ”HE IS RUNNING” HOPI... SITUATION lb OBJECTIVE FIELD BLANK DEVOID OF RUNNING SITUATION 2 ENGLISH... ‘HE RAN“ HOPI... h!J “WARI.”(RUNNING, STATEMENT OF FACT) ENGLISH... “HE RAN” SITUATION HOPI... 4 OBJECTIVE FIELD BLANK 5 ”EWIWARI.‘ (RUNNING, STATEMENT OF FACT FROM MEMORY) ENGLISH... ‘HE WILL RUN‘ HOPI... SITUATION ’WARI.” (RUNNING,