Donna Latham, Andrew Christensen

Language: English

Pages: 128

ISBN: 1619301652

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

Canals and Dams: Investigate Feats of Engineering invites children ages 9 and up to explore the innovation and physical science behind the amazing waterways and barriers our world depends on. Trivia and fun facts illustrate engineering ingenuity and achievements from ancient aqueducts to the Suez Canal and the Hoover Dam. Readers will discover that engineers and builders alike put their lives on the line to advance civilization, experiencing triumphs and tragedies in building big. Through dazzling success and heartbreaking failure, they developed increasingly sophisticated tools and building methods.

Activities and projects encourage children to explore the engineering process and to try, try again through trial and error. They'll engage in hands-on explorations of buoyancy, Newton’s third law of motion, and forces that push and pull structures. They’ll create a paper-cup zip line, build an arch, and simulate a tsunami, while experimenting with gravity, hydroponics, and velocity. In Canals and Dams: Investigate Feats of Engineering, children will gain an appreciation for the important field of engineering as they develop their own building skills.

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counterweight balances the weight of the water in the bucket, which makes raising the water nearly effortless. To operate the shaduf, the worker tugs a rope attached to the long end. The machine swings into action with a sweeping, seesaw motion. The bucket fills and the counterweight easily hoists it up. The worker swings the pole around and empties the bucket into the irrigation ditch. DID YOU KNOW? The shaduf is still used in Egypt, Romania, and India, where it’s called a denkli or

blasts, railroad collisions, drowning, disease. How many people gave their lives to complete the Panama Canal? Nearly 20,000 workers may have perished during the French phase. Another 5,609 died during the American phase. In 1904, the United States purchased rights to the land and took control of the project. Colonel William Crawford Gorgas of the U.S. Army Medical Corps engineered a plan to wipe out malaria. Focusing on destroying breeding grounds, Colonel Gorgas organized the drainage of

crumbling Truckee Canal finally failed. The irrigation canal was over 100 years old and had urgently needed repair. Engineers, geologists, and hydrologists examined the evidence. Did erosion cause collapse? Seismic activity? Sabotage? Close study revealed the real culprits. Critters! WORDS to KNOW geologist: a scientist who studies the earth. hydrologist: a scientist who studies the earth’s water. seismic: relating to earthquakes. TRY THIS Aging water infrastructure is a

improve life for themselves and others. Early engineers observed the way nature worked and teamed with it to make all kinds of improvements. It wasn’t always easy, and engineers made monumental mistakes along the way. Still, they remained determined. They explored ways to design tools, machines, and structures. WORDS to KNOW engineer: someone who uses science and math to design and build structures such as buildings, bridges, tunnels, canals, and dams. tunnel: a passageway that goes

animals and plants healthy and growing. open-ended: able to adapt to the needs of a situation. overtop: to rise above the top of a barrier. parallel: lines extending in the same direction, keeping the same distance between them. peat: a mossy soillike material made of rotting plant matter. petroglyph: a rock carving. physical science: the study of the physical world. physics: the science of how matter and energy work together. A physicist studies physics. pivotal: vitally important.

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